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Media Piracy in Emerging Economies is the first independent, large-scale study of music, film and software piracy in emerging economies, with a focus on Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, Mexico and Bolivia.

Based on three years of work by some thirty-five researchers, Media Piracy in Emerging Economies tells two overarching stories: one tracing the explosive growth of piracy as digital technologies became cheap and ubiquitous around the world, and another following the growth of industry lobbies that have reshaped laws and law enforcement around copyright protection. The report argues that these efforts have largely failed, and that the problem of piracy is better conceived as a failure of affordable access to media in legal markets.

Major Findings

  • Prices are too high. High prices for media goods, low incomes, and cheap digital technologies are the main ingredients of global media piracy. Relative to local incomes in Brazil, Russia, or South Africa, the retail price of a CD, DVD, or copy of MS Office is five to ten times higher than in the US or Europe. Legal media markets are correspondingly tiny and underdeveloped.
  • Competition is good. The chief predictor of low prices in legal media markets is the presence of strong domestic companies that compete for local audiences and consumers. In the developing world, where global film, music, and software companies dominate the market, such conditions are largely absent.
  • Antipiracy education has failed. The authors find no significant stigma attached to piracy in any of the countries examined. Rather, piracy is part of the daily media practices of large and growing portions of the population.
  • Changing the law is easy. Changing the practice is hard. Industry lobbies have been very successful at changing laws to criminalize these practices, but largely unsuccessful at getting governments to apply them. There is, the authors argue, no realistic way to reconcile mass enforcement and due process, especially in countries with severely overburdened legal systems.
  • Criminals can’t compete with free. The study finds no systematic links between media piracy and organized crime or terrorism in any of the countries examined. Today, commercial pirates and transnational smugglers face the same dilemma as the legal industry: how to compete with free.
  • Enforcement hasn’t worked. After a decade of ramped up enforcement, the authors can find no impact on the overall supply of pirated goods.

English Version by Chapter

Introduction  (6 pp.)

Chapter 1: Rethinking Piracy   Joe Karaganis (74 pp.)

Chapter 2: Networked Governance   Joe Karaganis and Sean Flynn (24 pp.)

Chapter 3: South Africa   Natasha Primo and Libby Lloyd (50 pp.)

Chapter 4: Russia  Olga Sezneva and Joe Karaganis (70 pp.)

Chapter 5: Brazil  Pedro N. Mizukami, Oona Castro, Luiz Fernando Moncau, and Ronaldo Lemos (86 pp.)

Chapter 6: Mexico  John C. Cross (22 pp.)

Chapter 7: Bolivia  Henry Stobart (12 pp.)

Chapter 8: India  Lawrence Liang and Ravi Sundaram (60 pp.)

Coda: A Short History of Book Piracy  Bodó Balázs (14 pp.)

Versión en español


Capítulo 1: Repensar la piratería   Joe Karaganis

Capítulo 2: Red de gestión y USTR   Joe Karaganis and Sean Flynn

Capítulo 3: Sudáfrica   Natasha Primo and Libby Lloyd

Capítulo 4: Rusia   Olga Sezneva and Joe Karaganis

Capítulo 5: Brasil  Pedro N. Mizukami, Oona Castro, Luiz Fernando Moncau, and Ronaldo Lemos

Capítulo 6: Mexico   John C. Cross

Capítulo 7: Bolivia   Henry Stobart

Capítulo 8: India   Lawrence Liang and Ravi Sundaram

Coda: Una breve historia de la piratería de libros   Bodó Balázs

Russian Version by Chapter

Глава 1: Переосмысление пиратства  Joe Karaganis

Глава 2: Сетевое управление и USTR   Joe Karaganis and Sean Flynn

Глава 3: Южная Африка   Natasha Primo and Libby Lloyd

Глава 4: Россия   Olga Sezneva and Joe Karaganis

Глава 5: Бразилия   Pedro N. Mizukami, Oona Castro, Luiz Fernando Moncau, and Ronaldo Lemos

Глава 6: Мексика   John Cross

Глава 7: Боливия   Henry Stobart

Глава 8: Индия    Lawrence Liang and Ravi Sundaram

Заключительный аккорд: Краткая история книжного пиратства   Bodó Balázs



《新兴经济体的媒体盗版》是第一个独立、大型的媒体盗版研究, 该研究围绕音乐、电影、和软件的盗版现象在新兴经济体的发展,主要关注巴西、印度、俄罗斯、南非、墨西哥和玻利维亚等国家。

基于35名研究人员历经三年的辛勤研究工作, 《新兴经济体的媒体盗版》主要阐述了以下两个广泛现象: 1) 盗版的发展伴随着数字科技在全球的普及和价格下降; 2) 为了版权保护而进行了法律与执法的修正与改进。

《新兴经济体的媒体盗版》报告的认为, 执法努力大多以失败告终,而盗版问题其实是正版市场无法提供合理价位的结果。随着互联网和文化产业在中国的蓬勃发展,如何平衡版权执法与价格实惠的媒体消费将是决定能否获取网络革命硕果的关键。

Media Piracy Author Bios and Acknowledgements

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Media Piracy in Emerging Economies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.